Sterrekunde

Is sterre regtig 'brandende bolle gas'?

Is sterre regtig 'brandende bolle gas'?


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Selfs die NASA-webwerf verwys na sterre as 'groot bal gas'. Dit is 'n algemene stelling wat deur films en populêre kultuur gewild is. Sterre is egter tegnies nie in 'n gasvormige toestand nie - hulle is in 'n plasma-toestand.

Beteken sterre dus dat dit van 'gas' bestaan ​​soos die spreekwoord dit sou voorstel, of word dit as 'n wanopvatting beskou?


Alhoewel ek saamstem dat dit op semantiek neerkom, stem ek eintlik nie saam oor die wetenskaplike gebruik van die term in die kommentaar nie. In die sterrekunde weet ons dat daar 'n verskil is tussen gas en plasma, maar ons gebruik byna altyd die term 'gas' as ons praat oor wat in sterre voorkom. Bv. "die fraksie gas wat in sterre opgesluit is" (teenoor die interstellêre medium). Ons praat ook oor die metallisiteit van gas, wat beide gas en plasma beteken. Ek dink ons ​​gebruik die term plasma slegs wanneer ons spesifiek eienskappe bespreek wat uniek is aan plasma, soos om in magnetiese velde "gevries" te word. En googling ["geïoniseerde gas" -plasma] (die '-plasma' is om van artikels ontslae te raak wat verduidelik wat plasma is) lewer 243 000 treffers op, waarvan verreweg die meeste wetenskaplike artikels en webwerwe is.

Ek dink dus die antwoord is: "Nee, sterre is nie gemaak van gas nie, hulle is van plasma, maar gaan voort en noem dit gas, u sal geen sterrekundige aanstoot gee nie."

Ek stem egter saam met Rob Jeffries dat ons moenie soos wanneer jy dit noem brand gas. Dit is kernkrag! Dit is 'n miljoen $ ^ dolk $ keer kragtiger as vuur!

$ ^ dolk $Waarom 'n miljoen '? Omdat kernreaksies in MeV gemeet word, terwyl chemiese reaksies in eV gemeet word.


Is sterre regtig balle gas & rdquo? - Sterrekunde

As u in 'n donker helder nag na die lug opkyk, kan u duisende sterre op u sien afskyn. Hierdie sterre is bolletjies warm gas, soos ons Son. Die lig van hierdie sterre het duisende kilometers (of meer!) Afgelê om u oë te bereik. As u die geluk het om die sterre in die berge, in die woestyn of op enige plek ver van stadsliggies af te sien, sal u ook 'n groot wasige streep oor die lug sien. Hierdie waasagtige streep is 'n digte versameling dowwe sterre wat so talryk is dat dit lyk asof hul lig op die lug saamsmelt en 'n streep vorm. Hierdie streep word die genoem Melkwegas gevolg van sy & quotmelkagtige & quot voorkoms.

'N Digte versameling sterre, gas en stof (soos die Melkweg) word a genoem sterrestelsel. Die Melkwegis ons tuisstelsel as ons buite die land sou kon reis Melkwegen as ons daarna terugkyk, sou ons sien dat ons son net een van die vele sterre is waaruit die Melkwegstelsel.

In 1925 het 'n sterrekundige met die naam Edwin Hubble die opwindende ontdekking gemaak dat daar ander sterrestelsels in die heelal is, buiten ons eie. Hy het Cepheid-veranderlikes gebruik (onthou dat dit standaardkerse is) en ontdek die afstand tot die dowwe, vaag en newelagtige sterrekykers wat sedert die laat 1700's waargeneem is en gevind dat hierdie voorwerpe buite ons eie sterrestelsel lê. Dit dui daarop dat die & quotnebulae & quot glad nie eintlik newels was nie maar individuele sterrestelsels. Hubble het die struktuur van hierdie sterrestelsels bestudeer en in drie hoofklasse gegroepeer:

Sterrestelsels is interessant om te bestudeer, nie net omdat dit groot hoeveelhede sterre en stof bevat nie (en ander sonnestelsels!), Maar ook omdat dit met mekaar in wisselwerking tree en bots. Sulke interaksies veroorsaak groot ontwrigting in die sterrestelsels self. Dit maak sterrestelsels dinamiese, opwindende besoekplekke deur die oë van die wetenskap.

Nadat u hierdie afdelings hersien het, probeer u 'n paar voorbeelde van vrae om u begrip te toets. Hierdie vrae is tipies van vrae wat in die inleidende eksamens vir astronomie-kursusse aangebied word. Dit is slegs bedoel om u 'n idee te gee van watter soorte vrae u tydens u eksamen kan doen. Net omdat hierdie vrae hier is, beteken dit NIE dat u vrae soos dit tydens u eksamen sal hê nie, en dit beteken ook nie dat u vrae oor hierdie onderwerpe tydens u eksamen sal hê nie. Dit is net OEFENVrae!

Departement Sterrekunde, Universiteit van Maryland
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Kosmologie is astronomie in die groot prentjie - die heelal op sy grootste skaal. Van die geheimenisse van donker materie en donker energie tot die uitgestrekte kosmiese web, moderne kosmologie ondersoek wat die kosmos laat regmerk. Lees die jongste kosmologienuus hier.

Ons het ontdek enkele eksoplanete wat om twee sterre wentel en soveel as sewe eksoplanete wat om 'n enkele ster wentel. Ons het die planeetvormende skywe ondersoek wat hierdie vreemde wêrelde voortbring, en ons begin selfs om die vreemde weer in kaart te bring. Lees die jongste eksoplanetnuus, van super-Aarde tot warm Jupiters.


Is sterre regtig balle gas & rdquo? - Sterrekunde

Waarom trek mense sterre met vyf punte as dit eintlik net bolletjies gas is?

Al is die sterre op verskillende maniere voorgestel. Een van die algemeenste is die vyfpuntige ster, maar 4,6,7,8 en nog meer punte is gebruik. Sommige kulture het ook sterre meer voorgestel soos wat hulle in die lug gesien word, as kolletjies of klein sirkeltjies. Die vyfpuntige ster het moontlik ontstaan ​​uit die manier waarop die Egiptenare die ster in hroglype voorgestel het. As u een of ander tyd na 'n helder ster kyk, kan u opmerk dat daar lyne daaruit blyk te wees. Dit word diffraksiespitse genoem en verskyn as gevolg van die manier waarop die lig in u oog kom, 'n klein sirkelvormige gaatjie. (Sterrekundiges is baie bekend met diffraksie omdat dit die fundamentele beperking bied aan die detail wat ons in verafgeleë voorwerpe kan uitmaak). Ek vermoed die uiteindelike oorsprong van die puntige ster is daardie spykers, alhoewel dit net 'n opgevoede raaiskoot is.

Die ster-simbool het 'n baie ryk geskiedenis en word dikwels in 'n godsdienstige konteks gebruik (byvoorbeeld die ster van Dawid of die ster van Betlehem). Dit is natuurlik ook belangrik vir Amerikaanse burgers (en burgers van sommige ander lande) as deel van hul vlag. Die werklike oorsprong daarvan kan verlore gaan, maar die geskiedenis sal beslis 'n interessante onderwerp wees om verder te ondersoek.

Hierdie bladsy is laas op 18 Julie 2015 opgedateer.

Oor die skrywer

Karen Meesters

Karen was 'n gegradueerde student aan Cornell van 2000-2005. Sy gaan werk as navorser in sterrestelselopnames aan die Harvard Universiteit, en is nou in die fakulteit aan die Universiteit van Portsmouth in haar tuisland, die Verenigde Koninkryk. Haar navorsing het die afgelope tyd gefokus op die gebruik van die morfologie van sterrestelsels om leidrade te gee vir die vorming en evolusie daarvan. Sy is die projekwetenskaplike vir die Galaxy Zoo-projek.


Dit blyk dat die feit dat jy deur 'n supernova geslaan word, jou kan laat ineenstort. As u 'n kometiese bol is.

Daar is 'n soort wolk in die ruimte wat 'n kometiese bol genoem word - 'n vlek digte gas en stof, gewoonlik 'n ligjaar of so, met 'n lang stert materiaal wat vir 'n paar ligjare kan stroom.

Dit is gewoonlik wat 'n genoem word sekondêre ster vorm funksie. As u 'n groot gaswolk het wat dekades ligjare oorhet, kan dit duisende sterre vorm, waarvan sommige massief en verskriklik helder is. 'N Digte stolsel van gas en stof in die omgewing sal 'n aanslag van hoë-energie ultravioletlig van hierdie sterre in die gesig staar, wat die materiaal verhit en vernietig, verdamp van die digter deel en wegblaas. Na 'n rukkie kry jy 'n kometiese bol, met 'n digte kop materiaal en 'n lang stert.

Meer slegte sterrekunde

Die ontploffing van die lig van daardie sterre kan veroorsaak dat die aardbol ineenstort en sterre in hulle vorm - dit kry die uiters koel term bestralingsgedrewe inploffing. Altesaam is dit geneig om kometêre bolletjies baie koel voorwerpe te maak.

Die komeetglobule CG12 en sy ingebedde sterretros NGC 5367, geneem met behulp van 'n 50-cm Chilescope-teleskoop. Krediet: Sebastian Voltmer

'N Goeie, maar eienaardige voorbeeld hiervan is Cometary Globule 12, of CG 12, wat ongeveer 2 200 ligjare van die aarde af is. Op die eerste oogopslag is dit 'n klassieke van die genre, 'n soort bolvormige bol wat gelaai is met 'n paar honderd keer die massa van die son se gas en stof, en 'n lang stert wat vir 'n paar ligjare wegstrek. Dit skep sterre daarin, en hulle vorm 'n groep genaamd NGC 5367.

Maar as jy 'n bietjie grawe, begin jy vreemde dinge daaroor vind.

Dit broei sterre daarin uit, maar teen 'n baie hoër tempo as die meeste ander bolletjies is daar waarskynlik 60 of meer jong sterre in die gemiddelde van ongeveer 4 miljoen jaar oud, maar met sommige so oud as 20 miljoen jaar. Tog is daar geen groot stervormende streek naby wat dit deel uitmaak nie. In werklikheid is dit amper bo die vlak van die melkweg se skyf geleë 800 ligjare, terwyl die meeste ander newels binne 'n paar dosyn ligjare van die skyf hou. Boonop is die ouderdomme en verspreiding van sterre daarin sodanig dat 'n eenvoudige geval van stralingsgedrewe inploffing waarskynlik nie die oorsaak van die stergeboorte is nie, of die krag agter die blaas van die stert.

CG 12 en NGC 5367 (links onder) met van die ligsterre daar naby aangedui deur pyle. Die linkerkant van en net bo die middel is HD 120958. Krediet: Aladin / DSS2

In 2008 het sommige sterrekundiges 'n artikel gepubliseer wat toon dat daar 'n handjievol massiewe, sterre aan die hemel is wat lyk asof dit naby CG 12 in sy noordweste is. Die naaste, genaamd HD 120958, is nogal die dier en is net 'n halwe graad daarvan.

Maar die nabyheid kan 'n illusie wees. Twee dinge in die lug naby mekaar kan nog steeds ongelooflik ver van mekaar af wees, maar ons kan nie weet nie, want dit kan moeilik wees om daardie derde dimensie te kry.

Gaan Gaia binne. Hierdie sterrewag in Europa karteer byna twee miljard sterre in die lug en kry hul presiese posisies, bewegings en afstande na die aarde. 'N Paar sterrekundiges het die Gaia-gegewens vir die sterre naby CG 12 bekyk en gevind dat dit ongeveer almal is. 2 200 ligjare van die aarde af.

Whoa. Dit beteken dat hulle op dieselfde afstand as CG 12 is (binne 'n mate van onsekerheid). Verdag!

Daar is egter steeds 'n probleem. Die naaste, HD 120958, is nog ongeveer 50 ligjare van die aardbol af, wat te ver is om dit so sterk te beïnvloed.

Maar hier is die ding van massiewe, helder sterre. Hulle ontplof.

Die idee is nou dat hierdie sterre ongeveer 20-30 miljoen jaar gelede in 'n newel gebore is, waarskynlik op een of ander manier met CG 12 verband hou. Een van hierdie sterre was besonder massief, het vinnig deur sy kernbrandstof gebrand en toe as 'n supernova ontplof. KABOOM! Die buitenste lae van die ster, met 'n massa soveel as die son, het teen 'n ordentlike fraksie van die ligspoed weggevlieg. Na 'n paar jaar het hulle 'n digte stolsel van gas en stof in die omtrek ingehaal, daarin vasgedruk en saamgepers, wat 'n vyftige periode van stervorming daarin veroorsaak het. Dit sou ook materiaal uit die klomp teruggeblaas het, en 'n lang stert geskep het. Tada! CG 12.

Na al hierdie tyd sou ek verwag dat die stert sou verdwyn, maar miskien is die lig van die nabygeleë ligsterre genoeg om dit te laat vloei (as jy die stert agtertoe volg, deur die kop van CG 12, wys dit amper presies op HD 120958 In die bostaande artikel wat hierbo gekoppel is, beweer die sterrekundiges dat die ster moontlik deel was van 'n binêre stelsel waar die metgesel opgeblaas het en die een wat ons sien, agtergelaat het. Nog 'n vraag is hoe al die rommel in die eerste plek so hoog van die vliegtuig van die Melkweg af gekom het. Dit is regtig vreemd, en ek het geen idees nie.

Ek verwag dat hierdie supernova-verklaring reg is, maar daar is ook meer om uit te vind oor hierdie vreemde en pragtige voorwerp. Dit is altyd die geval in die wetenskap, is dit nie? Maar dit het my ten minste 'n verskoning gegee om oor kometêre bolletjies te praat en 'n ongelooflike mooi prentjie van een te plaas. Ek vra geen verskoning daarvoor nie.


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Watch this beautiful, high-resolution simulation of how stars are born

In a new computer simulation called STARFORGE (pictured), an enormous cloud of gas collapses into a collection of new stars.

Northwestern University, University of Texas at Austin

Deel dit:

The most realistic computer simulation of star formation yet offers stunning views of what the inside of a stellar nursery might look like.

In the Star Formation in Gaseous Environments simulation, or STARFORGE, a giant virtual cloud of gas collapses into a nest of new stars. Unlike other simulations, which could render only a small clump of gas within a larger cloud, STARFORGE simulates an entire star-forming cloud. It’s also the first simulation to account for the whole medley of physical phenomena thought to influence star formation, researchers report online May 17 in Maandelikse kennisgewings van die Royal Astronomical Society.

“We sort of know the basic story of star formation … but the devil is in the details,” says Mike Grudić, a theoretical astrophysicist at Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill. (SN: 4/21/20). Astronomers still don’t fully understand, for instance, why stars have different masses. “If you really want to get the full picture, then you really have to just simulate the whole thing.”

STARFORGE starts with a blob of gas that can be tens to hundreds of light-years across and up to millions of times the mass of the sun. Turbulence inside the cloud creates dense pockets that collapse to forge new stars. Those stars then launch powerful jets, give off radiation, shed stellar winds and explode in supernovas. Eventually, these phenomena blow the last vestiges of the cloud away and leave behind a hive of young stars. The whole process takes millions of years — or months of computing time, even running on supercomputers.

Using STARFORGE, Grudić and colleagues have confirmed that jets launched by new stars help regulate how much material a star amasses. In simulations without jets, typical stars were about 10 times the mass of the sun — way bigger than the actual average star. “As soon as you add this jet feedback to your simulation,” Grudić says, “stellar masses start coming out more or less right on the dot for what they’re observed to be.”

The STARFORGE simulation has helped confirm that jets launched by newborn stars (simulated one shown) determine how much mass stars can accrete. Northwestern University, University of Texas at Austin

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Spitzer spies a hot spot of star formation

The nebula known as W51 is one of the most active star-forming regions in the Milky Way galaxy. First identified in 1958 by radio telescopes, it makes a rich cosmic tapestry in this image from NASA’s recently retired Spitzer Space Telescope.

Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/GLIMPSE & MIPSGAL Teams.

Located about 17,000 light-years from Earth, in the direction of the constellation Aquila in the night sky, W51 is about 350 light-years across. It is almost invisible to telescopes that collect visible light, because that light is blocked by interstellar dust clouds that lie between W51 and Earth. But longer wavelengths of light, including radio and infrared, can pass unencumbered through the dust. When viewed in infrared by Spitzer, W51 is a spectacular sight: Its total infrared emission is the equivalent of 20 million Suns.

If you could see it with your naked eye, this dense cloud of gas and dust would appear about as large as the full Moon. The Orion Nebula – another well-known star-forming region and a favourite for amateur astronomers – occupies about the same size area in the sky. But W51 is actually much farther from Earth than Orion and thus much larger, and it’s about 75 times more luminous. While Orion contains four known O-type stars – the most massive stars in the Universe – W51 contains over 30.

“Star factories” like this one can operate for millions of years. The cavernous red region on the right side of W51 is older, evident in the way it has already been carved out by winds from generations of massive stars (those at least 10 times the mass of our Sun). The dust and gas in the region are swept around even more when those stars die and explode as supernovas. On the nebula’s younger left side, many stars are just beginning to clear away the gas and dust in the same way the stars in the older region have done. It’s apparent that many of these young stars are in the process of forming bubbles of empty space around themselves.

This image was taken as part of a major observation campaign by Spitzer in 2004 to map the large-scale structure of the Milky Way galaxy – a considerable challenge because Earth lies inside it. Called the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE), the survey also turned up valuable data on many wonders within the Milky Way, including images of multiple stellar factories like W51 that were hidden by dust from visible-light observatories.

“The really spectacular images provided by Spitzer via the GLIMPSE survey ­- in concert with data from many other, complementary telescopes – give us insight into how massive stars form in our Milky Way, and then how their powerful winds and radiation interact with the remaining ambient material,” said Breanna Binder, an assistant professor of physics and astronomy at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, who studies the life cycles of massive stars. “We can’t observe star-forming regions in other galaxies in anywhere near the level of detail that we can in our own galaxy. So regions like W51 are really important for advancing our understanding of star formation in the Milky Way, which we can then extrapolate to how star formation proceeds in other, nearby galaxies.”

NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope launched 17 years ago on 25 August 2003. The spacecraft was retired on 30 January 2020.


Reflection and Emission

Near the top of the constellation Orion lies a star that you might easily pass over scanning the heavens. It’s just barely visible to the naked eye on a dark night, another white spark among thousands.

But this star, called HD 34989 (among other alphanumeric designations) is special. For one thing, it’s massive, probably 10 times the mass of our Sun. It’s also incredibly luminous, shining 15,000 times brighter than the Sun. Put that in the center of our solar system, and the global warming we’re experiencing now would seem like the deep freeze. Happily, it’s over a thousand light years away.

But in that location, it sits in the middle of a fairly large cloud of gas and dust, too. Because the star is so bright, it profoundly affects that nebula, as you can see for yourself in this exquisite photograph by Adam Block:

Adam took this picture with the 0.8 meter (32 inch) Schulman Telescope (RCOS) on Mt. Lemmon in Arizona. HD 34989 is pretty obvious it’s the intensely bright star in the middle. The gas and dust are obvious, too…but what’s the deal with those colors? Why is some of the gas red, and some blue?

I’m glad you asked. Let us reflect on this question.

There are two ways for an object to be visible. One is if it reflects light from a nearby source (which is how we see the vast majority of objects around us), and the other is if it is intrinsically giving off, or emitting, light.

The star HD 34989 is emitting light, and that light is very blue. In fact, it gives off a lot of ultraviolet light. The gas cloud has a lot of hydrogen in it, which loves to absorb that UV light. When an atom of hydrogen gets zapped with UV, the electron gets blown off the atom. But then the remaining atom (really just a proton) has a positive charge, and attracts any electron around it. If one meets up with it, they combine once again to form a neutral atom. Due to complicated quantum mechanic effects, the electron jumps down a series of discrete energy levels, a bit like a ball rolling down a staircase. Every time it does that, it gives off a little bit of light.

As it happens, one of those energy level jumps is very popular among the excited hydrogen atoms. When an electron makes that drop, it emits a photon (a particle of light) in the red part of the spectrum. This emission is called hydrogen-alpha, or H-alpha for short (or even Hα if you want to get all fancy and Greek). It’s very common in warm gas clouds where some bright star is nearby.

So in this case the gas is energized by the star, and responds by emitting that glorious red color. There is a special Hα filter astronomers use to specifically observe that light, which Adam used in this picture to enhance the glowing hydrogen. In this case, the cloud is called an emission nebula.

So where does the blue come from then? That one’s easier. It’s just the blue light of the star reflected! In this case, the culprit isn’t gas, it’s dust—thick clumps of complex molecules created when stars are born, and when they die. It’s strewn throughout the galaxy, especially where you see big gas clouds.

That dust acts a bit like a mirror. When the light from the star hits it, that light gets scattered every which way, and some of it heads toward us. The star is blue, so it makes the dust look blue. That’s called a reflection nebula.

Many times where you see a blue reflection nebula you also see red emission gas as well. Not always, but that’s clearly the case here in fact they have two different names: vdB38 for the reflection nebula and Sharpless 2-236 for the emission nebula. On Flickr I found a nice set of images showing how the reflected and emitted light can be combined to make a single image like Adam’s. You can see why astronomers use these filters it helps distinguish what’s physically happening in the nebula.

Interestingly, not all the dust in that cloud is scattering the star’s light. See that sharp ridge of red at the bottom left of the nebula, right where we start to see blue light? That’s probably the edge of a large, dense cloud of dust called a molecular cloud (those are common in that part of space). The edge of it is being lit by the star, making it look brighter. This is very similar to what lights up the Orion Nebula and other famous (and gorgeous) objects.

It’s hard to believe all that is lit by a single star, but it is. Mind you, that whole glowing gas cloud is something like five light year across—50 trillion kilometers (30 trillion miles)! But HD 34989 is a monster. Only one star in a thousand is as massive, hot, and bright as it is. Which is something you should be thankful for you don’t want to be too close to something like that…especially since, in a few million years or so, it’ll explode as a supernova. For something like that, it’s always best to be sitting at a safe distance. A thousand light years will do me just fine.


Kyk die video: 20 тысяч сербских болельщиков исполнили песню в память об ансамбле имени Александрова (November 2022).